The cuban question and the cold war in latin america, 19591964. Many now alive remember the cuban missile crisis, possibly for distinct moments such as adlai stevensons until hell freezes over speech at. Text and pictures present an account of the 1962 confrontation between the united states and the soviet union resulting from a confirmation of the existence of russian offensive missiles in cuba, considered to be a threat of nuclear war. Is there a historian that knows the cuban missile crisis well. Missile crisis however, successfully argued for continued secrecy. The tools of espionage are going mainstream the atlantic. This book explains the critical events, along with the experiences of those who execute presidential commands in times of national crisis. Cold war the cuban missile crisis 1962 extract from president kennedys tv broadcast announcing the presence of soviet missiles in cuba sixth.
The cuban question and the cold war in latin america. A first hand account of the cuban missile crisis introductionfailed mindsets policy and intelligence failures laid the groundwork for the 1962 cuban missile crisis, the most dangerous crisis of the cold war. Sep, 2017 heres a list of resources from wikipedia. The cuban missile crisis, in october 1962, was probably the closest the united states and the soviet union came to initiating nuclear war. They will kill us tomorrow because the missiles will be ready in days. Ussoviet exchange during cuban missile crisis wikisource. Navy subchasing units and the soviet submarine b59, commanded by valentin savitsky, on the most dangerous day of the. The cuban missile crisis was the ultimate spyonspy moment. After the photographic evidence showing soviet missiles deployed in cuba had been confirmed, president kennedy organised a secret meeting of senior advisors at the white house. Declassified secrets of black saturday, douglas gilbert revisits the day that the us, soviet and cuban governments came dangerously close to subjecting the world to death by firestorm. Standing on the brink of nuclear war during the cuban. For thirteen days in october of 1962, a truly perilous flirtation with nuclear war developed between the united states and ussr, as the superpowers argued over the installation of soviet nuclear weapons in cuba. The soviet intelligence services and the soviet military used deceptive measures to conceal from the united states their intentions in operation anadyr, which led to the cuban missile crisis. Keepingthesecretathome in the soviet union, the menand equipment destined for cuba were assembled, loaded, and moved by rail at night under rein forced guard.
Even though scholars have intensely scrutinized the cuban missile crisis for decades, michael dobbs, for one, has recently argued that there is still much to be uncovered, including a greater use of ex soviet sources, a closer examination of more basic archival materials such as those the u. The objectivity of sergo mikoyan is highly questionable, for the obvious reason that he is writing about his own father and is hardly going to present his father in an. Harvard kennedy schools belfer center has created this site as a resource for the cuban missile crisis. Cuban missile crisis shows value of presidential judgment. Other historians have challenged this interpretation, while some believe that far from working for the west, penkovsky was an instrument of soviet. In june andjuly, the ussr began to charter western ships to carry general cargo from the soviet union to cuba, resening its own freighters for carrying mil itary cargo. From its inception, the soviet missile operation entailed elaborate denial and. Soviet response to the first edition of reflections has been a prime example of the new openness under glasnost in discussing previously taboo subjects using new revelations such as the fact that moscow had twice as many troops in cuba as the kennedy administration believed from key soviet and cuban sources, garthoff has revised his earlier analysis to produce the most accurate, eye. Most books on the cuban missile crisis tell the story through the perspective of memoirs of those who advised president kennedy, as he struggled to avoid world war iii. Jun 27, 2008 only now, four decades later, can we uncover the extent of the use of deception in the events leading to the cuban missile crisis. The cuban missile crisis, also known as the october crisis of 1962 spanish. As khrushchev put it, he saw the deployment of soviet missiles in cuba as putting one of our hedgehogs down the americans. In this issue of nuclear notebook, the authors analyze the order of battle of nuclear forces that were available to military and civilian officials in both the united states and the soviet. The cuban missile crisis, 1962 national security advisor macgeorge.
But for the soviets, reality is that they have one heck of a mess on their hands. The cuban missile crisis of october 1962 is perhaps the closest that the united. Double, perhaps even quadruple that number of soviet, eastern european, and chinese citizens perished, and no one had any reliable data on how many western europeans, africans, asians, australians, and others were killed by the radioactive fallout as it. To paraphrase sir winston churchill, perhaps the leastexplored aspect of the crisis was the soviet effort to cloak the truth of its strategic missile deployment within a bodyguard of lies, on a scale that most us. Defcon2 is the best single volume on the cuban missile crisis published and is an important. Soviet aid to cuba, servando the nuclear deception nikita khrushchev and the cuban pdf vol. Download free ebooks the soviet cuban missile crisis castro mikoyan kennedy khrushchev and the missiles of full ebook online free. During the cuban missile crisis nuclear weapons in cuba were aimed at the us, and at the same time. New books on the cuban missile crisis the fourteenth day. Download it once and read it on your kindle device, pc, phones or tablets. Maskirovka, russia, deception, hybrid warfare, information war, ukraine, cuban missile crisis, battle of kursk, 16.
This government, as promised, has maintained the closest surveillance of the soviet military buildup on the island of cuba. Jfks secret decisions on vietnam, civil rights, and cuba by patrick j. Asw forces and soviet submarines during october and november 1962, only in recent months has the hidden history of soviet submarine operations during the crisis become more widely known. So far as the world believes, the cuban missile crisis is over. While experts on the missile crisis, as well as the participants themselves, have been long aware of the catandmouse game between u. Soviet deception in the cuban missile crisis james h hansen on. This year marks the 50th anniversary of the cuban missile crisis, when the united states and the soviet union walked back from the brink of a nuclear war. Launched by rash judgment and concluded through circumspect leadership, the cuban missile crisis acted as a catalyst for change during the cold war. The author contends that in our understanding of the kremlins motivations in the cuban missile crisis, we have come to overrely on disparate pieces of evidence, which, at closer investigation, turn out to be onesided, undocumented, or demonstrably false. Compare and contrast the berlin blockade and the cuban. Yet there is perhaps no single event in recent history as puzzling as this one. Soviet deception in the cuban missile crisis researchgate.
Jul 29, 20 these means are situated in cuba at the request of the cuban government and are only for defense purposes. Cuban missile crisis world history free pdf download. Other historians have challenged this interpretation, while some believe that far from working for the west, penkovsky was an instrument of soviet strategic deception. The r12 was the first operational intermediaterange ballistic missile, the first missile ever massproduced, and the first soviet missile deployed with. Neither the united states of america nor the world community of nations can tolerate deliberate deception and offensive threats on the part of any nation, large or small. The influence of nuclear weapons in the cuban missile crisis marc. An aggressive blockade termed a quarantine by the us navy compelled the. Cuban missile crisis 4 the first consignment of r12 missiles arrived on the night of september 8, followed by a second on september 16. Cuban missile crisis, we can hardly wait that long. Read the shattered crystal ball fear and learning in the cuban missile crisis pdf online. The r12 was the first operational intermediaterange ballistic missile, the first missile ever massproduced, and the first soviet missile deployed with a thermonuclear warhead. Jfk and the aftermath of the cuban missile crisis, those two weeks in october 1962 made kennedy a better president. Comparing perspectives of the cuban missile crisis learn it.
Speaking to soviet officials in the aftermath of the crisis, khrushchev asserted. Some analysts even have concluded that what was called the cold war ended in 1962 with the cuban missile crisis. Our documents aerial photograph of missiles in cuba 1962. Transcript of a discussion about the cuban missile crisis, june 28. According to cia analyst james hansen, the soviet army most likely used largescale battlefield deception before the cuban missile crisis more frequently.
Source documentation and further discussion is provided in the revised edition of the authors book on the crisis. Between 1987 and 1992 a series of five conferences helped to bring together former participants and scholars from the united states, the soviet union and cuba. The resulting show downwhich the russians call the caribbean crisis and the cubans call the october crisis brought the world to the brink of nuclear war. Fidel castro led the revolution and took control of cuba. Now available for download, the global cuban missile crisis at 50. The soviet attempt to position nuclear weapons in cuba occurred under a shroud of great secrecy, both to deny the united states information on the deployment of the missiles and to deceive the united states political leadership, military, and intelligence services on the soviets. The united states had been trying to make germany a democracy since the end of world war ii, but had faced much opposition from the soviet union, which wanted to make germany communist. Other episodes, such as the 1957 soviet launching of the sputnik satellite and the 1962 cuban missile crisis, added to the tension. Numerous tactical nuclear weaponsnot known to the u. Svetlana savranskaya will discuss behind the scenes maneuvers by soviet second in command anastas mikoyan, revealing that the crisis lasted into november and involved plans by the u. Soviet deception in the cuban missile crisis central. They were forced to withdraw their missiles from cuba. The estimated number of north american deaths was upwards of 200 million. The tense standoff for days was known as the cuban missile crisis.
The cuban missile crisis began for the united states on the morning of october 16, when president kennedy was informed of the discovery of missile sites in cuba by u2 surveillance aircraft. On october 18, kennedy met with soviet minister of foreign affairs, andrei gromyko, who claimed the weapons were for defensive purposes only. The secret deal to resolve the cuban missile crisis that contradicts the popularized eyeballtoeyeball account of kennedys dramatic showdown with soviet premier nikita. The event known as the cuban missile crisis, the greatest of all cold war crises, is a milestone in the history of the cold war. Learning from soviet the past deception in the cuban missile crisis james h.
Designed to help policymakers, students, and interested citizens draw lessons from these critical events half a century ago, this site not only provides background on the crisis that brought the world to the brink of nuclear disaster in october 1962 but also offers tools to understand how. Soviet maritime policy began to shift in accordance with these first trips. Oleg penkovsky spied for sis and the cia during a crucial phase of the cold war. It is anastas mikoyans cuban missile crisis, and it is a translation of a book written by mikoyans son, sergo mikoyan. Hungary, embassy, havana, telegram, top secret, the essence of soviet cuban divergences of opinion, december 1, 1962. These events helped shaped different points of view that led up to the cuban missile crisis. These advisors were known as excomm executive committee of the national security council. Kennedy convened an informal group of cabinet officials and top civilian and military advisors the ex comm to consider and plan an appropriate response. All they got in return was the us removing some obsolete missiles from turkey, which were useless militarily and posed little military threat to russia. Kennedy publicly denounced the soviet unions construction of missile launching sites in cuba. Nikita khrushchev and the cuban missile crisis, castro. Soviet political deception also played a significant role before and during the.
The cuban missile crisis was a severe test for the soviet leadership. The cuban missile crisis was a triumph for the soviet union. One major event was the communist revolution in cuba. His focus is the existential risk and hope in a nuclear world and the role of sea power in the nuclear standoff. The cuban missile crisis edinburgh university press. Fifty years ago, the world spent thirteen days transfixed as the u. By seeking to understand why local states opposed castros ascendance and what they wanted to do to counter his regime, the account here offers new insight into the cuban revolutions. Cwihp marks the 50th anniversary of the cuban missile crisis by releasing cwihp bulletin 1718, with over 500 newly declassified and translated documents from international sources. Under the charter of the united nations, we are asking tonight that an emergency meeting of the security council be convoked without delay to take action against this latest soviet threat to world peace. Mail and telegrams along the way were strictly prohibited.
Operation anadyr was not only a missile and troop deployment, but also a complex denial and deception campaign. Learning objective h, wor theme read about the tense 1962 standoff between the united states and the soviet union that nearly resulted in. The cuban missile war was the most devastating war in world history. A period of increased cooperation and reduced tensions known as detente began almost immediately after the cuban missile crisis and continued throughout the 1960s and 1970s. Cuban missile crisis jfk and the cuban missile crisis. Instrumental in the early stages of the cuban missile crisis, these photographs showed that the soviet union was amassing offensive ballistic missiles in cuba. Kennedy warned that any attempt by the soviet union to place nuclear weapons in cuba would be. Graham allison cuban missile crisiscuban missile crisis.
Kennedy john swift examines the events that led the world to the brink of nuclear catastrophe. Acclaimed as one of the most important spies of the century, his role in the cuban missile crisis has been portrayed as of pre. Moscows surreptitious dispatch of nuclearcapable ss4 and ss5 surfacetosurface missiles to cuba in 1962 upset the strategic balance in an alarming way. A button that says download on the app store, and if clicked it. The cuban missile crisis was one of the major climaxes of the cold war, bringing the world the closest it has ever been to a nuclear war. Great britain, dispatch, confidential, british ambassador in cuba to foreign office, the cuban crisis chapters i and ii, november 10, 1962 with minutes from fos american department as cover. There are many questions that still remain unanswered. See, for example, arnold horelick, the cuban missile crisis. Soviet perspective on the cuban missile crisis from nikita.
This monograph will discuss and analyze the different mindsets, or fixed mental attitudes, which policymakers and other officials. Jun, 2011 the cuban missile crisis was not a triumph for the soviet union. Sep 14, 2012 most books on the cuban missile crisis tell the story through the perspective of memoirs of those who advised president kennedy, as he struggled to avoid world war iii. The cold warcuban missile crisis wikibooks, open books. Oct 10, 2012 washington, dc, october 10, 2012 in november 1962, cuba was preparing to become the first nuclear power in latin americaat the time when the kennedy administration thought that the cuban missile crisis was long resolved and the soviet missiles were out. The problem is to see if any of these living people live in your area and be willing to be interviewed or are willing to be interviewed via the internet, facet. President kennedy and secretary of defense mcnamara in an excomm meeting. The cuban missile crisis was a sixday clash in october 1962 between the united.
However, the soviet and the cuban leadership knew that the most dangerous weapons of. Archived pdf from the original on september 15, 2010. Therefore, if there is no invasion of cuba, or attack on the soviet union or any of our other allies, then of course these means are not and will not be a threat to anyone. Not wanting to expose what he already knew and to avoid panicking the american public,kennedy did not reveal that he was already aware of the missile buildup. Several international crises between the united states and the soviet union preceded the cuban missile crisis. A short history with documents michelle getchell in october 1962, when the soviet union deployed nuclear missiles in cuba, the most dangerous confrontation of the cold war ensued, bringing the world close to the brink of nuclear war. Download citation soviet deception in the cuban missile crisis moscows surreptitious dispatch of nuclearcapable ss4 and ss5 surfacetosurface missiles to cuba in 1962 upset the strategic. Thetrain routes and final destinations \vere kept secret. The placing of soviet nuclear missiles in cuba, aimed at the united states, could have escalated into a full scale war between the united states and the soviet union. The united states armed forces were on defcon 2, the readiness step next to nuclear war. Oct 24, 2012 the second crisis was the cuban missile crisis. Download citation soviet deception in the cuban missile crisis moscows surreptitious dispatch of nuclearcapable ss4 and ss5 surfacetosurface. There are a vast array of similarities and differences when comparing and contrasting the berlin blockade and the cuban missile crisis.
The fall of the soviet union made it possible to reexamine the cuban missile crisis by using soviet information and questioning soviet participants in the crisis. Castro mikoyan kennedy khrushchev and the missiles. Soviet caribbean confrontation of october i962 to mere. Only now, four decades later, can we uncover the extent of the use of deception in the events leading to the cuban missile crisis. Garthoff, reflections on the cuban missile crisis, rev.689 885 1330 1600 182 1303 1422 80 404 28 911 1425 1546 399 237 1202 989 1401 387 1381 1121 507 253 1427 1 549 734 817 1236 995 1454 1601 1352 1524 722 202 310 1268 253 1248 950 901 1332 1210 745 726 350